Category Archives: Procedural

Update 13: Simple Rivers

For me, one of the most important parts of the world generation has to be the rivers. I feel like I rarely see genuine flowing rivers in games, especially not procedurally generated ones. Minecraft and NoMansSky have ‘rivers’ but they don’t really follow any logic, they don’t really flow, and have no clear end and start. This is because the world of minecraft is on an infinite plane and NoMansSky has infinite planets. The terrain has no hard limits, so it’s not possible to do an actual simulation of erosion or rainfall. For me, rivers created from noise generation just don’t cut it, even a very simple simulation of rainfall and erosion is much more interesting.

I always like to get something working as soon as possible. So I started with a dead simple rainfall model. I attach a ‘water level’ value to each tile, then to simulate rain I increment the ‘water level’ for each tile every step of the simulation. Higher points will get slightly more rain. Then, if the water level on an adjacent tile is lower, I move a fraction of water from the current tile to that adjacent tile. I also evaporate water on each tile by a constant amount each step.


Initial simple water simulation

Initial results are quite decent, the noise generation already has decent river like formations and valleys carved into it. So the water just flows into the valleys and looks quite natural.


After running the simulation for 500 steps

Simple beginnings, next step will be to add an erosion model and actually mesh the rivers. Right now, any tile that’s above a water threshold is blue, there is no depth to water, it’s just flat.


Update 12: Terrain Generation Experiments

I talked before about the improved noise system. I’ve been playing around and experimenting with different parameters, getting some interesting results. The difference between a real island and my fake video game island is that of scale. I want mountains, sweeping rivers, wildly different biomes, all on one island that spans maybe only 1.5 miles coast to coast. So it wouldn’t make sense for my islands to perfectly imitate the natural forming islands of earth. I wouldn’t say the terrain of the islands below look realistic, however these islands might not have even been created using the same tectonic processes. I’ve thought a bit about how far a fantasy world can really deviate from the real world. I think, that If the world looks like it was formed by some sort of natural process then it gets a pass. The real question is weather these maps are fun to play and build on. They definitely provide some nice variation across seeds with each map having some distinctive features.

Below I’ve demonstrated the effect of changing lacunarity on an FBM noise which acts as an input to the frequency of a Ridged Multi noise. So thats one set of noise acting as an input on another noise. Lacunarity starts at 0.0 and increments by 0.1 to a final value of 2.5.

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Lacunarity (2000 x 2000)

Below you can see the effect of changing the frequency of the input noise.


Frequency (2000 x 2000)

The problem with this noise generation is that quite often I get a dud seed, especially when using noise of lower frequency. Sometimes an island will be very small, or overly large. I’m thinking of writing a function which discards maps based on total landmass, then keeps trying new maps until it finds a good fit. I would only need to sample the noise few times, maybe 200 samples, to get a reasonably accurate landmass approximation.

Below is the effect of changing intensity on the input noise. It starts as a sphere because there is a radial gradient subtracted from the noise to act as a falloff. With our input noise having 0 intensity it means that the main noise has a frequency of 0, the noise becomes just a flat color.


Intensity (2000 x 2000)


Islands with increasing temperature (2000 x 2000)

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Island with biomes (1000 x 1000)

Update 11: World Generation Refactor

I’ve spent some time refactoring the world generation and building a useful world generation editor. I think having an actual visual interface to preview the generation in real time will be massively useful. Before, I would make changes to the algorithm in c++, then have to wait while it compiles and launches to see the changes. This is obviously painfully slow and make makes it very difficult to experiment. Now I can manipulate noise parameters in a custom editor and see the changes right away.

Before, all I could do with noise was stack them on top of each other with a blending function (Add, Subtract, Avg, Multiply..). However to get more exciting results the noise parameters need to be deviated by another noise value. So for example, now I can plug ‘Billow’ noise into the frequency parameter of an ‘FBM ‘noise. This kind of perturbation can get really interesting results.

In all but the first post I ever made on the game you can’t see any biomes on the map. I actually disabled biomes because of a bug in the code. I’ve gone and fixed the bug and tweaked the whole biome generation system. I also wrote a script which takes the current world generation parameters and outputs one large image containg lots of maps using different seeds.



These maps above are using the old noise system. The mountains are just kind of splatted on top of the base noise. Next step will be to play around with the new noise system to create more natural looking mountains which blend into the terrain.

Procedural Planets

I put together a little planet generator a few months ago, thought I would share. The generation is based on several parameters like temperature(distance to sun), size, population etc… then it churns out these neat little pixel art planets. Pretty simple but a cool result, this was done in Unity3D.